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February 2, 2011

The Honorable Ben Bernanke, Chairman Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System 20th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20551

Dear Chairman Bernanke:

On behalf of the retail industry, including restaurants, supermarkets, convenience stores, drug stores, and many others, we are writing to express our gratitude for the time and thoughtful consideration the Federal Reserve Board of Governors and Federal Reserve Board Payments staff have dedicated to the proposed regulations on debit card interchange fees and routing [Regulation II; Docket No. R-1404].

The proposed debit card interchange fee and routing reforms are a positive first step toward creating competition and certainty in the debit card market. We were pleased to see the Board acknowledge that initially interchange fees flowed to the merchant from the card issuer. There is no reason for interchange to flow from merchants to card issuers as those issuers save money on every debit card transaction because it is already cheaper than a check transaction. For this reason, among others, the final rules can move further toward the check system that has served the nation and the economy very well for many years without interchange fees. The current debit card system, riddled with uncertainty, has made it extremely difficult for us to plan for our businesses. We are confident the final debit card reforms the Federal Reserve will issue this April will take us one step closer to fair and transparent debit card fees, and will provide much-needed certainty as we plan ahead, budget, and make hiring decisions. We also look forward to the end of exclusive network arrangements, which should open the door to competition that will benefit both merchants and consumers on all debit transactions – whether those transactions are initiated by entering a PIN, signing or by any other method. We have watched our cost of accepting debit cards increase year after year powerless to impact or even predict what these cost increases will be. These debit fees have continued to increase since the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform bill was enacted – further proof we are subject to a broken payments card market. As business-people, we compete for customers on price and service. The card companies, however, have centrally set interchange fees for over a decade, and have increased these fees with complete disregard to the impact on merchants and consumers.

As with other costs, we expected these fees to decrease with technology improvements, but that has not been the case. Now, with debit cards rapidly replacing paper checks, the card companies have more opportunities to abuse their position. The current system of unchecked central price-fixing by the card companies has led to an inefficient market with complex and unpredictable rates, and we look forward to the implementation of the debit interchange fee and routing reforms this summer that will provide much-needed relief to Main Street businesses and our customers. We understand that some of the big banks who benefit from these excessive fees want to delay your work and are willing to take extreme measures to attempt to do so. If they are successful it will simply allow them to further injure retailers, consumers and our economy as a whole with their anti-competitive behavior. We urge you to move forward to implement these reforms and continue to move toward the beneficial model set by the check system. Thank you again for your diligent work. If there is any way in which we can be helpful as you finalize these regulations, please do not hesitate to contact us. Sincerely,

The undersigned companies & associations CC:

United States House of Representatives United States Senate

Alabama Mid South Petroleum Corporation Vernon, AL Boom Foods, LLC Birmingham, AL Calhoun Enterprises, Inc. Montgomery, AL Geo. H. Green Oil Inc. Fairburn, AL Gregerson's Foods, Inc. Gadsden, AL Tacala, LLC, Birmingham, AL The Spencer Companies Incorporated Huntsville, AL Western Supermarkets, Inc. Birmingham, AL Minto Energy Mobile, AL C&S Canopy, Inc Clanton, AL CDG Engineers & Associates, Inc Dothan, AL Chapman Canopy, Inc Hueytown, AL Commercial Refrigeration, Inc Birmingham, AL McKenzie Oil Company, Inc Eufala, AL McKinney Petroleum Equipment Mobile, AL Superior Petroleum Service, Inc. Saraland, AL Quality Petroleum of Alabama

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Birmingham, AL

Gitty Up N GO Andalusia, AL Eidson Petroleum Inc Cullman, AL Petroleum Sales Inc Decatur, AL RS Lord LLC Troy, AL Crew Distributing Company Opp, AL 6040 LLC Birmingham, AL Watkins Oil Company, Inc Athens, AL Brown Oil Co. Gadsden, AL Chattahoochee Oil Co. West Point, AL DC Oil Co. Birmingham, AL Baggett Oil Co. Florence, AL Max Oil Co. Greenville, AL Hill Petroleum Co. Goodwater, AL Jet-Pep Inc. Holly Pond, AL GOV Ltd. Butler, AL Home Oil Co. Cowarts, AL

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United Food & Fuel Montgomery, AL Alabama College Bookstore Association Alabama Grocers Association Alabama Restaurant Association Alabama Retail Association Petroleum and Convenience Marketers of Alabama Alaska S&P Adventures Inc Girdwood, AK Arizona Bashas' Inc. Chandler, AZ Fleming's Prime Steakhouse & Wine Bar, Scottsdale, AZ Macayo Mexican Restaurant Phoenix, AZ Pro's Ranch Markets Phoenix, AZ Tuscon Truck Terminal, Inc. Tucson, Arizona Viad Corp Phoenix, AZ Wildflower Bread Company Scottsdale, AZ Brown Evans Distributing Co. Mesa, AZ Quik Mart Stores Bennett Oil Calvert Oil Union Distributing

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Cooperative Mercantile Colorado City, AZ Double D Market Dolansprings, AZ Arizona Restaurant and Hospitality Association Arizona Retailers Association Arizona Food Marketing Alliance Arizona Petroleum Marketers Association Arkansas American Pie Pizza North Little Rock, AR Bartlett Hicks Realty North Little Rock, AR Best Western Eureka Inn Eureka Springs, AR Big Creek Golf & Country Club Mountain Home, AR Brown’s Catfish Russellville, AR Coulson Oil Company Little Rock, AR CenterPoint Energy Little Rock, AR Comfort Inn Mountain Home, AR DeVito's Restaurant, Harrison, AK The Faded Rose Restaurants Little Rock, AR Frost Oil Co. Van Buren, AR Hicks, Dowty, McCauley and Schell - Architects + Interior designers, Inc.,

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North Little Rock, AR

Sassafras Group, Inc., dba Maddie's Place Little Rock,AR Saddle Peak LLC Little Rock, AR Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Bentonville, AR Arkansas Hospitality Association Arkansas Oil Marketers Association, Inc. Arkansas Grocers and Retail Merchants Association California Pacific Convenience and Fuels, LLC San Ramon, CA E.R. Vine Inc. Ceres, CA Anabi Oil Corporation Upland, CA Boyett Petroleum Modesto, CA SC Fuels Orange, CA Bristol Farms, Inc. Carson, CA Harvest Market Fort Bragg, CA Jax Markets Anaheim, CA K.V. Mart Co. Carson, CA Marchbanks Truck Service, Inc. Bakersfield, California,

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Mi Pueblo Food Center San Jose, CA Mollie Stone's Markets Mill Valley, CA Northgate Gonzalez Market Anaheim, CA Sacramento 49er Travel Plaza Sacramento, California Save Mart Supermarkets Modesto, CA Safeway Inc. Pleasanton, CA Stater Bros. Markets San Bernardino, CA Unified Grocers, Inc. Commerce, CA Pacific Sales Torrance, CA Napster Los Angeles, CA DealTree.com Irvine, CA Olio e Limone Ristorante Santa Barbara, CA Olio Pizzeria Santa Barbara, CA Cracked Crab® Pismo Beach, CA La Trattoria Ventura, CA Viking Shop Barstow College, CA Shadowbrook Restaurant Capitola, CA

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Luna Park Restaurants Los Angles, CA Henry's Hat Los Angles, CA Da Giovanni Inc. Carmel, CA SYSCO of Central CA Oakdale, CA J & T Business Management, Inc. Corona, CA Robinson Oil Corporation Santa Clara, CA Gil Moore Oil Company Wilton, CA Mt. Counties Supply Co. Redding, CA Western States Oil Company San Jose, CA Access To Money Los Angeles, CA Davidson Tank Bakersfield, CA California Association of College Stores California Independent Grocers Association California Retailers Association California Independent Oil Marketers Association California Grocers Association Colorado Craftwood Inn Manitou Springs, CO Village Markets Genwood Springs, CO

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Clarks Markets Basalt, CO Columbine Market Gypsum, CO Cedar Edge Mercantile Cedar Edge, CO Don's Market Paonia, CO Dover Creek Market Dover Creek, CO Family Food Town Palisade, CO

Family Market Naturita, CO Gateway Supermarket Gateway, CO Hayden Mercantile Hayden, CO Keystone Grocery Vail, CO Kremmling Merc Kremmling, CO The Market at Mountain Village Ridgeway, CO and Steamboat Springs, CO Orchard Mesa Market Grand Junction, CO Prathers Market Fairplay, CO Rancho Liborio's Market Denver, CO Redd Mercantile Nucla, CO Ridgeway Mountain Market

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Ridgeway, CO Select Supermarket Oak Creek, CO Shop and Hop Edwards, CO Silverton Grocery Silverton, CO Sim's Market Vail, CO Watts Ranch Market Meeker, CO White River Grocery Ridgeway, CO Offen Petroleum Denver, CO Colorado Petroleum Marketers and Convenience Store Association Colorado Retail Council Colorado Restaurant Association Rocky Mountain Food Industry Association Connecticut Wilcox Fuels Incorporated Westbrook, CT Gulf Oil LP Madison, CT The Melting Pot Darien, CT American Steak House Bozzuto's Inc. Cheshire, CT Geissler's Supermarkets, Inc. East Windsor, CT Highland Park Market, Inc.

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Manchester, CT Connecticut Retail Merchants Association Connecticut Food Association Independent Connecticut Petroleum Association Delaware Caffé Gelato Restaurant and Catering Newark, DE Delaware Restaurant Association District of Columbia Restaurant Association Metropolitan Washington National Council of Chain Restaurants Florida Muvico Theatres, Inc. Fort Lauderdale, FL Winn-Dixie Stores, Inc. Jacksonville, FL Publix Super Markets, Inc. Lakeland, FL W.S. Badco*ck Corporation Mulberry, FL Darden Restaurants Orlando, FL Brunchery Restaurants Tampa, FL Cafe Tu Tu Tango Orlando, FL Original Tiki Bar & Restaurant Ft. Pierce, FL The Blue Fish Restaurant Jacksonville, FL

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Cosimo's Brick Oven, Cosimo's Too!, Catering by Cosimo's, Sarasota, FL Berner Oil Co. Inc Clewiston, FL 24/7 Brooksville, FL Abilita Fernandina Beach, FL Acentria, Inc Lakeland, FL Acts Construction, Inc Apopka, FL Adams Tank and Lift, Inc Clearwater, FL Advanced Environmental Laboratories Jacksonville, FL AEC Services, Inc Tampa, FL AECOM Orlando, FL Aerostar Environmental Services Jacksonville, FL Ahern's BP Shop Moore Haven, FL AIR-Serv Florida Fort Lauderdale, FL Almond Oil Company Gainesville, FL Alpha Analytics, Inc Orlando, FL Aluminum Plus Deland, FL Andrew Bell, Inc Ocoee, FL

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Applied Media Technologies Corp Clearwater, FL Applied Science and Engineering, LLC Tampa, FL ATC Associates, Inc Tampa, FL ATCO, Inc Sarasota, FL AtlasTransoil, Inc / Kleensoil Palmetto, FL Automated Petroleum and Energy Co Brandon, FL B&M Construction Co, Inc Deerfield Beach, FL BB Insurance Marketing, Inc Fort Lauderdale, FL Berner Oil Company, Inc Clewiston, FL Best Industries, Inc. Fort Pierce, FL Best Line Oil Company, Inc Tampa, FL Blaylock Oil Company Homestead, FL Blue Wave Ice / Water To Go Orlando, FL Bradenton Fuel Oil, Inc Bradenton, FL Bridgeland Realty, LLC Pembroke Pines, FL Brigham Moore, LLP Jacksonville, FL Brooks Oil Company, Inc Bushnell, FL

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BV Oil Company Miami, FL Cape Tank Lines Fort Myers, FL Carlton Fields Tampa, FL CGC Petroleum Palm City, FL Chambliss, LTD Fort Lauderdale, FL Charles Brown Oil Company Riviera Beach, FL Chehab Petroleum, Inc Tampa, FL Circle K Stores, Inc Tampa, FL Clardy Oil Company Ocala, FL Clark Environmental, Inc Mulberry, FL Clean Fuels National Deland, FL Coastal Construction & Petroleum Services, Inc Jacksonville, FL Colonial Coffee Roasters, Inc Miami, FL Combs Oil Company Naples, FL Commercial Air-Vacs Of Florida, Inc Tampa, FL Commercial Foodservice Repair, Inc Orlando, FL Commercial Pay Vacuum's Inc Doral, FL

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Commonwealth Brands, Inc Valrico, FL Coomes Oil & Supply, Inc St. Augustine, FL C-Store Consulting Services Valrico, FL CT Earle Corporation Gibsonton, FL Cunningham Oil Company Holly Hill, FL Curt Miller Oil Company, Inc Bonifay, FL Dallas 1 Corporation Thonotosassa, FL

DB Trucking Fort Lauderdale, FL Diamond Oil LLC Ocala, FL Dion Oil Company Key West, FL Dixie Signs, Inc Lakeland, FL Donnini / Reliance Petroleum Palm City, FL Dosal Tobacco Corporation Opa-Locka, FL Down Under Tank Testing of Florida, Inc Pompano Beach, FL Downstream Data Corporation / Downstream Inspections, Inc. Clearwater, FL E.O. Koch Oil Company Sebring, FL Earl Bacon Agency, Inc Tallahassee, FL

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East Coast Inventory Service, Inc Apollo Beach, FL Eli Roberts & Sons, Inc Tallahassee, FL Ellingson Properties, LLC Melbourne, FL Emerald Coast Inventory Service Gainesville, FL Environmental Assessments & Consulting, Inc. Sarasota, FL Environmental Consulting and Technology, Inc Gainesville, FL Enviro-Pro-Tech, Inc Pensacola, FL Envirotrac, LTD Tampa, FL Equipment With Experience, LLC Tampa, FL E's Country Stores, LLC Boca Raton, FL Express Lane, Inc Lynn Haven, FL Exum Energy, Inc New Smyrna Beach, FL FCS, INC. Clearwater, FL First Coast Energy Jacksonville, FL Fixel, Miguire & Willis Tallahassee, FL Florida Chemical Tampa, FL Florida Fuel of Hardee County, Inc Wauchula, FL

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Florida Fuel Partners Boca Raton, FL Florida Logos Lakeland, FL Florida Lottery Tallahassee, FL Florida Petroleum Corporation Fernandina Beach, FL Florida Petroleum Services, Inc Apopka, FL Florida Power and Light Riviera Beach, FL Florida Rock & Tank Lines, Inc Jacksonville, FL Florida Trails, Inc Sebring, FL Florida Turnpike Services, LLC Pompano Beach, FL Food N' Things Amoco Plant City, FL Fortis Environmental Group, LLC Tallahassee, FL FPMA Tallahassee, FL Fringe Benefit Plans, Inc Winter Park, FL Fueling Components Jacksonville, FL Futral Markets, Inc Frostproof, FL G. W. Hunter, Inc Lake City, FL Gandy Chevron Tampa, FL

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Gasoline Equipment Systems, Inc Cocoa, FL GasTech, Inc Melbourne, FL Gate Petroleum Co. Jacksonville, FL Gator Engineering & Aquifer Restoration Altamonte Springs, FL Gaylord, Merlin, Ludovici, Diaz & Bain Tampa, FL Gentry Oil, LLC Deland, FL Giant Oil, Inc Tampa, FL Gilbert Oil Company Okeechobee, FL Glasgow Equipment Service, Inc Riviera Beach, FL Global World Investment Company Orlando, FL Glover Oil Company, Inc Melbourne, FL Golder Associates, Inc Jacksonville, FL GrayRobinson Law Firm Tampa, FL Great Dane Petroleum Contractors Lauderhill, FL Green's Energy Services, Inc Orlando, FL Grimsley Groves, Inc Zolfo Springs, FL Ground/Water Treatment & Technology, Inc Sarasota, FL

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Groundwater & Environmental Services, Inc Ft. Lauderdale, FL Guardian Fueling Technologies Jacksonville, FL Guilday, Tucker, Schwartz & Simpson, P.A. Tallahassee, FL Gulf Coast Underwriters Tampa, FL Gulfcoast Software Solutions Clearwater, FL Gulfshore Insurance Naples, FL Guyton Energy Corporation Tampa, FL Harbour Petroleum Corp. of Brevard, Inc Melbourne, FL Harris Oil & Air Conditioning, Inc Mount Dora, FL Haskel Thompson & Associates Fort Myers, FL Hawks Boiled Peanuts Tampa, FL HCR Mount Dora, FL Highway Enterprises Palm City, FL Hinson Oil Company Quincy, FL Howell Oil Company, Inc Belle Glade, FL HSW Engineering, Inc Tampa, FL Hydro-Logic Associates, Inc Clearwater, FL

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Hy-Tech Petroleum Maintenance, Inc Plant City, FL Imperial Testing Laboratories, Inc Lakeland, FL Ins Office Of America Ft. Lauderdale, FL Intellifuel Systems, Inc. Titusville, FL J.E. Wilson and Son, Inc Belle Glade, FL J.H. Williams Oil Company, Inc Tampa, FL James Moore & Co.,CPAs Gainesville, FL Jeff Montgomery Associates Gainesville, FL Jet Age Fuel Clearwater, FL Jim Hinton Oil Company, Inc Live Oak, FL Jimmyjohn Distributing, LLC Monticello, FL JMP Solutions, Inc Tampa, FL John R. McKenzie Jobber, Inc Tavernier, FL Johnson & Associates Riverview, FL Johnson & Johnson, Inc Madison, FL Justin Davis Enterprises, Inc Madison, FL JV & Associates, Inc Orlando, FL

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K.C. Petroleum, Inc Jacksonville, FL Kenan Advantage Group, The Coral Springs, FL Kinetik Industrial Group, LLC Miami, FL Kingsley Enterprises, Inc Lawtey, FL Kirchman Oil Corporation Belle Glade, FL Kwik Shop, Inc Pensacola, FL Kwik Trip Oil Company, Inc. Jacksonville, FL Lakeland Laboratories Lakeland, FL Lakewood Park Sunoco Jupiter, FL Lancaster Oil Co. of Pinellas St. Petersburg, FL Land & Sea Petroleum Fort Lauderdale, FL Land O'Sun Management Group Gainesville, FL Lank Oil Co. Pompano Beach, FL Lassiter-Ware Insurance Tampa, FL Lewis Oil Company, Inc Gainesville, FL Lorillard Tobacco Company Tampa, FL Lykes Insurance, inc Winter Park, FL

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Lynch Oil Co, Inc Kissimmee, FL MACTEC Engineering & Consulting, Inc Tallahassee, FL Mansfield Oil Company Gainesville, FL Maple Leaf Environmental Equipment Lakeland, FL Marlin Fuel & Transport Tavernier, FL Martin Oil Co Jacksonville, FL McCarley Oil Co, Inc. Sarasota, FL McKenzie Tank Lines, Inc Tallahassee, FL McLane Suneast Kissimmee, FL McMullen Oil Co, Inc Clearwater, FL MDM Services, Inc. Lakeland, FL MECO of North Florida Jacksonville, FL Medallion Convenience Stores Apopka, FL Merit Petroleum Company LaBelle, FL Merrimac Capital, Inc Jacksonville, FL Midco Petroleum Company Sarasota, FL Mid-State Energy, Inc Lake Wales, FL

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Modern Welding Co of Florida, Inc Orlando, FL Moe Bern & Associates, Inc Lake Worth, FL Moonlight Petroleum Services Tampa, FL Morris & Reynolds Insurance Miami, FL Morris Holdings, Inc Jacksonville, FL Mott-Smith Consulting Group, LLC Tallahassee, FL MST Construction, Inc Havana, FL Murphy Oil USA, Inc Tarpon Springs, FL National Executive Personnel and Marketing Group Largo, FL Neace Lukens Winter Springs, FL New Image Marketing Fort Myers, FL Norris & Samon Pump Service, Inc St. Petersburg, FL O'Hanrahan Consultants Largo, FL Pafford Oil Company Tallahassee, FL Palmdale Oil Co Fort Pierce, FL Paradise Petroleum Marketers, Inc Big Pine Key, FL Penn Environmental Services Gibsonton, FL

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Perfect Petroleum Orlando, FL Perma-Fill Corporation Sanford, FL Petro Solutions Miami, FL Petro-Chem Environmental Systems Tampa, FL Petrofuse ZP Holiday, FL Petroleum and Construction Services, Inc Apopka, FL Petroleum Containment, Inc Jacksonville, FL Petroleum Plus Services Ocala, FL Petroleum Realty Investment Partners Miami Beach, FL Petroleum Recovery Systems, Inc Jacksonville, FL Petroleum Resources & Development, Inc Merritt Island, FL Phillips Oil, Inc Crestview, FL Pik N' Run, Inc Port Charlotte, FL Pipeline Transportation Inc Jacksonville, FL Piusi USA, Inc Fort Lauderdale, FL Platinum Web Development Tallahassee, FL Policy Managers Rockledge, FL

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Pope & Associates, Inc Tampa, FL Port Consolidated, Inc Fort Lauderdale, FL PPM Consultants, Inc Orlando, FL Priority Sales Associates, Inc Longwood, FL ProTec Fuel Management Boca Raton, FL Puckett Oil Co, Inc Pensacola, FL PURE Oil Jobbers Cooperative, Inc Lakeland, FL Quality Petroleum Corporation Lakeland, FL Radiant Group, The LLC Tampa, FL Rainey Cawthon Distribution Tallahassee, FL Randal Smith P.A. REB Oil, Inc Stuart, FL Restoration Specialists of Florida Orlando, FL Risser Oil Corp Clearwater, FL Ryan Petroleum, Inc Fort Myers, FL S&S Enterprises Cocoa, FL S&S Food Stores Lake City, FL

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Sangaree Oil Co, Inc Marianna, FL Schmitt Sales, Inc Port St. Lucie, FL Scotty's Oil Company Orlando, FL Shell Oil Products US Coral Springs, FL SK & NK United, Inc Rockledge, FL Smith Brothers Oil Co, Inc Bartow, FL South Florida Sales & Service, Inc Ft Lauderdale, FL South Pointe Insurance Services, LLC Brandon, FL Southeast Petro Distributing, Inc Cocoa, FL Southeastern Petroleum Contractors, Inc Port Richey, FL Southern Pump & Tank Company Jacksonville, FL Southern Tank and Pump Co. North Ft Myers, FL Sparky's Oil Co, Inc Plant City, FL Spires, Inc Lake City, FL Stillwater Technologies Orlando, FL Sugar Supply Lubricants Division Belle Glade, FL Sunny Florida Dairy Tampa, FL

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Sunoco, Inc Veno Beach, FL Sunshine Gasoline Distributors, Inc Miami, FL Supertest Oil Company Tampa, FL Tankergistics, Inc Tampa, FL Taylor Oil Co, Inc. Avon Park, FL TERRA-Com Environmental Consulting Newberry, FL The FGS Group Tampa, FL The Fone Connection of Tampa Bay Tampa, FL The McPherson Companies - T-Gill Fuels Division Pensacola, FL The Pantry Jacksonville, FL TimeSaver Food Stores Port St. Lucie, FL Tom Thumb Food Stores, Inc Hialeah, FL Top Gun Pressure & Steamcleaning Fort Lauderdale, FL TransMontaigne Product Services, Inc Fort Lauderdale, FL Tri County Oil Distributors, Inc Williston, FL Tri-Con General Contractors, Inc Tallahassee, FL Tropic Enterprises Jacksonville, FL

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Tropic Oil Company Miami, FL Twin Oil Company, Inc Miami, FL United Fuel & Supply Chiefland, FL United Oil Company, Inc Tampa, FL Universal Petroleum Services, Inc Jacksonville, FL Universal Solutions, Inc Tampa, FL Universal Structures, Inc Plant City, FL University Gas Aventura, FL Urbieta Oil Company Miami, FL USAmeriBank Tampa, FL Valero Marketing and Supply Company Pompano Beach, FL Valley Tank Testing Gibsonton, FL VP Racing Fuel SE, Inc Fort Lauderdale, FL W.R. Williams Dist., Inc Mayo, FL Ware Oil & Supply Company, Inc Perry, FL WatchDog Pump Calibration, LLC Clermont, FL Water & Air Research, Inc Gainesville, FL

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Watkins Oil Company, Inc Titusville, FL Weaver Oil Company, Inc Tallahassee, FL Werts Welding & Tank Service, Inc Tampa, FL Whetstone Oil Company, Inc Crystal River, FL Wilson's Petroleum Equipment, Inc. Fort Pierce, FL Florida Restaurant & Lodging Association Florida Petroleum Marketers & Convenience Store Association, Inc. Florida Retail Federation Georgia RaceTrac Petroleum, Inc. Atlanta, GA Wayfield Foods, Inc. Atlanta, GA Wendy's/Arby's Group, Inc. Sandy Spring, GA Dantanna's Surf, Turf & Turf Buckhead Atlanta, GA Dantanna's Downtown Atlanta, GA Doc Chey’s Noodle House Atlanta, GA Jocks II, Inc Atlanta, GA George H. Green Oil Fairburn, Georgia

Thompson Energy LLC Dalton, GA

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Davis Company Perry, GA Crain Oil Co. Newnan, GA M.B. Jones Oil Co. Wrens, GA Ownbey Enterprises, Inc. Dalton, GA J.H. Parker Oil Co. St. Simons Island, GA Geo. H. Green Oil, Inc. Fairburn, GA May & Carter Oil Company Jackson, GA R W Davis Oil Company Lilburn, GA Aden's Minit Market Douglas, GA Advanced Environmental Technologies Albany, GA Altria Group, Inc. Alpharetta, GA Bearden Oil Company Eastman, GA BP Products North America, Inc Dracula, GA Brugg Pipesystems Rome, GA Bryco Fueling Solutions Tifton, GA Chevron Products Company Atlanta, GA Colonial Oil Industries, Inc Savannah, GA

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Federated Insurance Atlanta, GA Flash Foods, Inc Waycross, GA J&K, LLC Duluth, GA Lewis And Raulerson, Inc Waycross, GA Marathon Petroleum Company, LLC Duluth, GA Metal Products Company Suwannee, GA NexCen Brands Norcross, GA Panhandle Commerical Properties, LLC Lawrenceville, GA Patriot Capital Corporation Atlanta, GA RaceTrac Petroleum, Inc Smyrna,, GA RJ Sales and Associates, Inc Cumming, GA Shady Vent Powder Springs, GA Soil Remediation Incorporated Ray City, GA Sunnytech Duluth, GA Georgia Retail Association Georgia Association of Convenience Stores Georgia Food Industry Association Georgia Restaurant Association

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Georgia Oilmen's Association Hawaii LWD Inc. Honolulu, HI Hawaii Restaurant Association Legislative Information Services of Hawaii (Convenience Store Association) Retail Merchants of Hawaii Idaho Albertsons LLC Boise, ID WinCo Foods, LLC Boise, ID Riccabona's Ketchum, ID AmeriTel Inns, Inc. Boise, ID Bardenay, Inc. Boise, ID DBA Grove Hotel & Qwest Arena Boise, ID Cash & Carry Foods Grangeville, ID Chandlers Steakhouse Boise, ID Food Services of America Meridian, ID Goodwood Barbecue Company Meridian, ID Happy Days Restuarants Moscow, ID Idaho Pizza Company Kuna, ID

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Oldtown Family Foods LLC Oldtown, ID Osburn Drug Company Osburn, ID Owyhee Plaza Hotel Boise, ID Rudy’s Pub & Grill Meridian, ID Stardust Motel Wallace Stein Bros., Inc., d/b/a Stein’s Family Foods Rathdrum, ID Sun Valley Resort Sun Valley, ID Oasis Stop N Go LLC Twin Falls, ID Ward Oil Company Pocatello, ID Short Stop Mccammon, ID Victor Valley Mkt & Café Victor, ID A & A Market Arco, ID Adamson's Carey, ID Ammon Speedi-Mart Idaho Falls, ID Atkinson's Market #1 Ketchum, Id. Atkinson's Market #2 Hailey, ID Atkinson's Market #3 Bellevue, ID Bisharat Market

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Inkom, ID Bliss Country Store Bliss, ID Broulim's Driggs Driggs, ID Broulim's Montpelier Montpelier, ID Broulim's Rigby Rigby, ID Broulim's St. Anthony St. Anthony, ID Broulim's Rexburg Rexburg, ID Broulim's Shelley Shelley, ID Broulim's Soda Springs Soda Springs, ID Camas Creek Country Store Fairfield, ID Cash And Carry Foods Grangeville, ID Chappel's Market Hagerman, ID Clark's Oakley, ID Cook's Foodtown Gooding, ID Corner Market Glenns Ferry, ID Cottonwood Foods Cottonwood, ID Council Valley Market Council, ID Country Corner

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Idaho Falls, ID Crouch Merc. Garden Valley, ID D J Food New Plymouth, ID D-9 Cascade, ID Dave's Jubilee Market Ashton, ID Don's Thriftway Buhl, ID Downey Food Center Downey, ID Duane's Market Castleford, ID Farmer's Corner Burley, ID Fort Hall Trading Post Fort Hall, ID Holmes Speedi Mart Idaho Falls, ID Howdy's Gas & Grub Cascade, ID Ike's 66 Dubois, ID Ivie's Market Mackay, ID Jensen's Ag Montpelier, ID Jerry's Buy Way Payette, ID K & B Kwik Stop Pocatello, ID Ken's Food Market

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Amer Falls, ID Kesler's Market Blackfoot, ID La Union Market Idaho Falls, ID Lallatin Foodtown Soda Springs, ID Lamb's Foodtown Challis, ID Logan's Market #3 Filer, ID Loveland's General Store Cambridge, ID Lynwood Twin Falls, ID M & W Market #4 Boise, ID M & W Market #6 Parma, ID Meadows Valley Market New Meadows, ID Melba Valley Market Melba, ID Midvale Market Midvale, ID Midway Foods Nezperce, ID Mountain Village Merc Stanley, ID Mud Lake Market Terreton, ID Nel's Bi-Lo Pocatello, ID Paul's Market #1

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Homedale, ID Paul's Market #10 Kuna, ID Paul's Market #11 Boise, ID Paul's Market #2 Nampa, ID Paul's Market #3 Nampa, ID Paul's Market #5 Caldwell, ID Paul's Market #6 Mountain Home, ID Paul's Market #8 Mccall, ID Piper's Richfield, ID Quik Stop Soda Springs, ID Ridley's (Blackfoot) Blackfoot, ID Ridley's (Buhl) Buhl, ID Ridley's (Gooding) Gooding, ID Ridley's (Jerome) Jerome, ID Ridley's (Kimberly) Kimberly, Id. Ridley's (Mccall) Mccall, ID Ridley's (Middleton) Middleton, ID Ridley's (Pocatello)

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Pocatello, ID Ridley's (Rupert) Rupert, ID Ridley's (Weiser) Weiser, ID Riggins Stinker Station Riggins, ID Ronnie's Council, ID Sam's Market Grace, ID Saveway Market Salmon, ID Sawtooth Foodtown Shoshone, ID Service Grocery & Laundromat Salmon, ID Shawn's Market Lava Hot, ID Simerlys, Inc. Wendell, ID Snake River Mart Marsing, ID Southside Market Glenns Ferry, ID Speedi Mart Idaho Falls, ID Square Deal Store Grandview, ID Star Mercantile Star, ID Stinker Stations/Donnelly Donnelly, ID Stites Grocery

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Stites, ID Stokes Fresh Food Market Burley, ID Stokes Fresh Food Market Aberdeen, ID Stokes Thriftway Preston, ID Stop N Shop Firth, ID Sugar City Market Sugar City, ID Sunny Slope Market Caldwell, ID Swenmart Twin Falls, ID Swensen's #3 Paul, ID Swensen's Inc. Burley, ID Swensen's Inc. #5 Rupert, ID Swensen's Inc. #6 Twin Falls, ID Thomas Market Malad, ID Village Mart Inkom, ID Village Square Market Challis, ID Wilder Market Wilder, ID Idaho Retailers Association Idaho Lodging & Restaurant Association

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Idaho Petroleum Marketers and Convenience Store Association Illinois Central Grocers, Inc. Joliet, IL Chapman's Book & Supply, Inc. Macomb, IL IGA, INC. Chicago, IL Potash Bros. Market Chicago, IL Niemann Foods, Inc. Quincy, IL Follett Higher Education Group Oak Brook, IL Benjamin’s Ltd of Galena Galena, IL Madi Ty Inc, Chicago, IL Salpicon Chicago, IL Rosati’s Franchise & Development LLC Warrenville, IL Chronister Oil Company dba Qik n EZ Chicago, IL Martin and Bayley Cami, IL Dersch Energies, Inc. Mt. Carmel, IL Graham Enterprises Mundelein, IL Tri Star Marketng Champaign, IL Baron-Huot Oil Company Bradley, IL

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Freedom Oil Company DBA Owens Oil Bloomington, IL Source North America Corporation Addison, IL The Energy Exchange Chicago, IL Kelley Williamson Company Rockford, IL Illinois Association of College Stores Palos Hills, IL Illinois Petroleum Marketers Association/Illinois Association of Convenience Stores Illinois Retail Merchants Association

Beverage Retailers Alliance of Illinois Indiana Herdrich Petroleum Corporation Rushville, IN S&S Oil Co., Inc. Auburn, IN Ricker Oil Co. Anderson, IN St Elmo Steakhouse Indianapolis, IN Lux Restaurants Indianapolis, IN Penguin Point Restaurants Warsaw, IN Triton Brewing Company Indianapolis, IN HuHot Mongolian Grill Lafayette, IN Martin's Super Markets, Inc. South Bend, IN

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Baesler's Inc. Terre Haute, IN Profile Systems Merillville, IN T.I.S. Group Bloomington, IN Indiana Association of College Stores Terre Haute, IN Indiana Restaurant Association Indiana Petroleum Marketers and Convenience Store Association, Inc. Indiana Retail Council Iowa Richard's Enterprises Irwin, IA Ryko Manufacturing Company

Grimes, IA J.D. Carpenter Companies, Inc. Urbandale, IA Hy-Vee, Inc. West Des Moines, IA Mid-States Association of College Stores Bettendorf, IA Ludlow’s Steakhouse Corydon, IA Kum & Go, L.C. West Des Moines, IA Iowa Retail Federation Iowa Grocery Industry Association Iowa Restaurant Association Petroleum Marketers & Convenience Stores of Iowa

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Kansas Associated Wholesale Grocers Kansas City, KS Ball's Price Chopper/Hen House Markets Kansas City, KS CarterEnergy Corp. Overland Park, KS Queen Enterprises LLC Paola, KS Presto Convenience Stores Overland Park, KS Toto's Tacoz! Wamego, KS Harry's Restaurant Manhattan, KS Freddy’s Frozen Custard Manhattan, KS The Liquor Store Beer Wine & Spirits Manhattan, KS

Pachamama's Restaurant and Starbar Lawrence, KS Raykies Grill & Dairy Medicine Lodge, KS Best Western Butterfield Inn Hays, KS Americas Best Value Vagabond Inn Hays, KS Days Inn Ellis, KS Paisano's Ristorante Lawrence, KS High Noon Saloon & Brewery Leavenworth, KS

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Kwik Shop, Inc. a div. of The Kroger Co. Hutchinson, KS Petroleum Marketers and Convenience Store Association of Kansas Kentucky Kennedy Book Store Lexington, KY Laurel Grocery Co., LLC London, KY Yum! Brands Louisville, KY Texas Roadhouse, Inc. Louisville, KY John's International Louisville, KY Tumbleweed Southwest Grill Louisville,KY Thorntons Inc. Louisville, KY Kentucky Retail Federation Kentucky Restaurant Association Kentucky Petroleum Marketers Association Louisiana Southern Theatres, LLC New Orleans, LA Associated Grocers, Inc. (LA) Baton Rouge, LA Dickie Brennan & Company New Orleans, LA Cracker Barrel Convenience Stores Baton Rouge, LA Caire Hotel & Restaurant Supply New Orleans, LA

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Morton’s Seafood Restaurant & Bar Madisonville, LA Court of Two Sisters restaurant New Orleans, LA Mardi Gras Truck Stop and Big Easy Travel Plaza New Orleans, Louisiana Gaubert Oil Company Incorporated Thibodaux, LA NE Louisiana Wholesale Oil and Gas Monroe, LA Hill Oil Company Farmerville, LA AIMS, Inc Monroe, LA Louisiana Oil Marketers & Convenience Store Association Louisiana Restaurant Association Louisiana Retailers Association Maine Hannaford Bros. Co. Scarborough, ME

Red Plate Catering & Events Nobleboro, ME Damariscotta River Grill Damariscotta, ME Anchor Inn Restaurant Round Pond, ME Webber Energy Fuels Augusta, ME Maine Grocers Association Maine Energy Marketers Association Maine Merchants Association

44

Maryland Giant Food Landover, MD Mid-Atlantic Petroleum Distributors' Association Severna Park, MD Chef’s Expressions Catering Timonium, MD Graul's Market Baltimore, MD Besche Oil Co., Inc Waldorf, MD Eagle Oil Co. Inc. Westminister, MD Carroll Independent Fuel Co. Baltimore, MD SMO Inc. La Plata, MD Dash In Food Stores La Plata, MD Potomac Energy Holdings, LLC La Plata, MD

Petroleum Capital & Real Estate, LLC West Friendship, MD Restaurant Association of Maryland Maryland Retailers Association Massachusetts Cumberland Farms, Inc. Framingham, MA Community Service Stations, Inc. Framingham, MA L. E. Belcher Inc. Springfield, MA

45

F.L. Roberts & Co., Inc. Springfield, MA Abbott Cards Marblehead, MA Atkins Farms Country Market Amherst, MA Big Y Foods, Inc. Springfield, MA Chelmsford Cyclery Chelmsford, MA Expert Automotive Plymouth, MA Grillo Oriental Rug Gallery and Care Braintree, MA Classic Restaurant Concepts Boston, MA Kaleidoscope Toys Falmouth, MA Lidios Restaurant & Lounge Leominster, MA Metrowest Group Northborough, MA Nantucket Bookworks Nantucket, MA Nauset TV & Sound Orleans, MA Roche Bros. Supermarkets Wellesley, MA The Secret Garden Oak Bluffs, MA Titcomb's Bookshop East Sandwich, MA Top Of The Hub

46

Boston, MA The Stop & Shop Supermarket Company Quincy, MA The Talbot’s, Inc. Hingham, MA Turner’s Seafood Grill and Market Melrose, MA XJX Inc., dba Sand N Surf Wicker & Gifts East Wareham, MA Tedeschi Food Shops Inc. Rockland, MA Campus Stores of New England, Inc. Chelmsford, MA Kennedy’s Restaurant Marlborough, MA Kennedy’s Market Marlborough, MA Volta Oil Plymouth, MA Peterson's Oil Service Worcester, MA LE Belcher Inc. Springfield, MA Air Energy, Inc South Easton, MA Bisco Environmental Taunton, MA Dunkin Brands, Inc Canton, MA Energi Insurance Services, Inc Peabody, MA Retailers Association of Massachusetts New England Fuel Institute Watertown, MA

47

Independent Oil Marketers Association of New England Falmouth, MA Massachusetts Package Stores Association West Springfield, MA Michigan Goodrich Quality Theaters Grand Rapids, MI Barger Petroleum Ann Arbor, MI Meijer, Inc. Grand Rapids, MI Spartan Stores, Inc. Grand Rapids, MI Arbys/Mitra Enterprises Metro Detroit, MI The Up North Lodge Gwinn, MI Mainstreet Ventures Ann Arbor, MI University Book Store, Inc. Kalamazoo, MI WESCO, Inc. Muskegon, MI Blodgett Oil Co. Inc Mt. Pleasant, MI The Michigan Association of College Stores Middleville, MI Michigan Grocers Association Michigan Restaurant Association Michigan Petroleum Association/Michigan Association of Convenience Stores Associated Food & Petroleum Dealers

48

Minnesota Best Buy Co., Inc. Richfield, MN Champps Restaurant Maple Grove, MN SUPERVALU INC. Eden Prairie, MN Kelley Fuels Incorporated Shakopee, MN Lund Food Holdings, Inc. Edina, MN Nash Finch Company Minneapolis, MN Coborn's, Incorporated St. Cloud, MN Knowlan's Super Markets, Inc. St. Paul, MN Mendakota Country Club St. Paul, MN Tri State Bookstore Association St. Paul, MN Target Corporation Minneapolis, MN Minnesota Grocers Association Minnesota Retailers Association Minnesota Petroleum Marketers Association Minnesota Service Station & Convenience Store Association Mississippi Double Quick, Inc. Indianola, MS New South Restaurant Group Hattiesburg, MS

49

Capital Oil Incorporated Jackson, MS Lipscomb Oil Company Greenville, MS Dickerson Oil Co. Prince Oil Dutch Oil Sayle Oil Company, Inc. Gresham Petroleum Park Oil Co Tupelo, MS Savings Oil Company/Dodge's Stores Tupelo, MS Mississippi Hospitality & Restaurant Association Mississippi Petroleum Marketers & Convenience Stores Association Missouri AMC Entertainment Inc., Kansas City, MO Patterson Oil Service Lee's Summit, MO Growth Energy Jefferson City, MO Tank Tech, Inc Blodgett, MO Meglio's Italian Grill and Bar Bridgeton, MO Schnuck Markets, Inc. St. Louis, MO Midwest Petroleum St. Louis, MO

50

Wallis Companies Cuba, MO J. D. Streett & Company, Inc. Maryland Heights, MO Missouri Retailers Association Missouri Petroleum Marketers and Convenience Store Association Montana Food Roundup W Yellowstone, MT White's Market Place W Yellowstone, MT Sutey Oil Co./Thriftway Butte, MT Rocky MTN Supply Belgrade, MT Ezzie’s Wholesale Malta, MT Town Pump Inc. Butte, MT Great Western Petroleum Missoula, MT CityService Valcon Kalispell, MT EZ Mart Harlem, MT Holiday Station Stores Billings, MT Stockton Oil Co. Billings, MT Fickler Oil Co. Deer Lodge, MT Moore Oil Thompson Falls, MT

51

L & P Grocery Boulder, MT Lee And Dad's Iga Belgrade, MT Poly Food Basket Billings, MT Rosebud Foods Colstrip, MT Town & Country Foods (11th Ave) Bozeman, MT Trout Creek Local Store Trout Creek, MT Allen's Manix Store Augusta, MT Alpine Village Market Whitefish, MT Amsterdam Store Manhattan, MT Belfry Country Store Belfry, MT Big Sky Hardware Richey, MT Blazers' Fresh Foods Shelby, MT Bob's Supermarket Townsend, MT Bob's Valley Services Helena, MT Buckhorn Store & Cabins Zortman, MT Canyon Foods Hungry Horse, MT. Charlo Grocery Charlo, MT

52

Clinton Market Clinton, MT The Country Market Big Sky, MT Crow Mercantile Co. Crow Agency, MT Curry's Thriftway Valier, MT D & D Foodtown Lincoln, MT Emigrant General Store Emigrant, MT Finley's Food Farm Chinook, MT Fortine Mercantile Fortine, MT Front Street Market Butte, MT Front Street Market Drummond, MT Gershmel's General Store Winnett, MT Glenn's Shopping Center Clyde Park, MT Gordon's Foods Glasgow, MT Grocery Store, The Big Sandy, MT Heeb's East Main Grocery Bozeman, MT Heritage Food Store East Helena, MT Huffman's Grocery Philipsburg, MT

53

Hungry Moose Market And Deli Big Sky, MT Jensen's Family Market Sheridan, MT Joe's Parkway Bozeman, MT Keith's Country Store Great Falls, MT K's Supermarket Standford, MT Kwik Stop Park City, MT L & F Food Farm Manhattan, MT Madison Foods Ennis, MT Main Street Market Ekalaka, MT Malta Bestway Foods Malta, MT Markus Foods Whitefish, MT Mathis Foodfarm White Sulphur Springs, MT Mcgowan Grocery Plains, MT Midtown Market Harlowton, MT Mike's Thriftway Chester, MT Mission Foods Ronan, MT Mission Mountain Merc. Condon, MT

54

Montana Market Eureka, MT No Entrance Shopping Ctr Gardiner, MT Olson's Grocery Winnett, MT Orange Street Food Farm Missoula, MT Pay-N-Save Saco, MT Polson Bay Grocery Polson, MT Price Rite Grocery Fort Benton, MT Project Merc. Worden, MT Restvedt Meats Ennis, MT Rex's Market Choteau, MT Reynolds Super Market Baker, MT Reynolds Super Market Sidney, MT Reynolds Whse Grocery Glendive, MT Reynolds Whse Grocery Miles City, MT Rowli's Food Farm Joliet, MT Ryan Grocery & Processing Jordan, MT T & R Trading Ashland, MT

55

Tande Grocery (Poplar) Poplar, MT Tande Grocery (Scobey) Scobey, MT Terminal Food Center Butte, MT Three Forks Market Three Forks, MT Thronson's Babb, MT Tom's Market Cascade, MT Town & Country Foods (Bozeman) Bozeman, MT Town & Country Foods (Livingston) Livingston, MT Valley Foods Bridger, MT Valley Foods Deer Lodge, MT Valley Grocery Alberton, MT Van Dyke's Supermarket Roundup, MT Van's Thriftway Helena, MT Wold's Valley Market Seeley Lake, MT Yellowtail Market Fort Smith, MT Montana Petroleum Marketers and Convenience Store Association Montana Restaurant Association Montana Retail Association

56

Nebraska Affiliated Foods Midwest Norfolk, NE B&R Stores, Inc. Lincoln, NE Rite Way Oil & Gas Co., Inc. Omaha, NE Shoemaker’s Truck Station, Inc. Lincoln, Nebraska Nebraska/Iowa Supply Co. Blair, NE Nebraska Grocery Industry Association Nebraska Restaurant Association Nebraska Retail Federation Nebraska Petroleum Marketers & Convenience Store Association Nevada Alamo Store Alamo, NV Aldape's Market Place Laughlin, NV Anderson Bros. Ely, NV Bradley's Bestway Mcgill, NV Cactus Pete's Country Store Jackpot, NV Caliente Store Caliente, NV Central Market Boulder City, NV El Rancho Market Mesquite, NV

57

Etcheverry's Foodtown Battle Mtn, NV General Store-Round Mtn., The Round Mtn, NV Ideal Market Mcdermitt, NV

Khoury's Market Place Elko, NV Khoury's Market Place Winnemucca, NV King Ranch Market #11 Reno, NV Mario's Westside Market Las Vegas, NV Midway Market Battle Mtn, NV Miner's Market Pioche, NV Our Grocery Store Owyhee, NV Panaca Market Panaca, NV Raine's Market Eureka, NV Ridley's (Ely) Ely, NV Roy's Foodtown Elko, NV Roy's Market Wells, NV Scott's Foodtown Carlin, NV Uptown Market Winnemucca, NV

58

Scolari's Food & Drug Company Reno, NV Rebel Oil Company Las Vegas, NV Retail Association of Nevada Nevada Petroleum Marketers & Convenience Store Association New Hampshire Cheshire Oil Co.Inc. Keene, N.H. Aranco Oil Co., Inc. Portsmouth, NH C&S Wholesale Grocers, Inc. Keene, NH Great NH Restaurants Bedford, NH New Hampshire Grocers Association Retail Merchants Association of New Hampshire Assoc. Grocers Of New England New Jersey Cundiff Oil Company Bellmawr, NJ Grace Energy Rio Grande, NJ Hilltop Petroleum Inc Clinton, NJ Medford Heating and Auto Care Medford, NJ McAllister Somers Point, NJ Consumers Oil Corp Trenton, NJ

59

Ray Petroleum Co. Randolph, NJ PFI Inc Hopatcong, NJ American Equipment Finance, LLC Warren, NJ Norkus Enterprises, Inc. Pt. Pleasant Beach, NJ

ShopRites of Hunterdon County, Inc. Flemington, NJ Wakefern Food Corporation Keasbey, NJ Amanda’s Restaurant Hoboken, NJ Elysian Café Hoboken, NJ Milford Oyster House Milford, NJ The Melting Pot in Westwood Westwood, NJ Speedy Mart Development Inc. dba Speedy Mart Springfield, NJ Fuel Merchants Association of New Jersey New Jersey Restaurant Association New Jersey Retail Merchants Association New Mexico Bowlin Travel Centers Albuquerque, NM Hodges Oil Company Incorporated Belen, NM Taco Villa Clovis, NM

60

Pizza Hut Clovis, NM Pizza Hut Portales, NM 5 Star Burgers Albuquerque and Taos, NM Ross Oil Co. Inc. Springer, NM New Mexico College Bookstore Association New Mexico Restaurant Association New Mexico Petroleum Marketers Association New York D'Agostino Supermarkets, Inc. Larchmont, NY Key Foods Stores Cooperative Staten Island, NY Price Chopper Supermarkets Schenectady, NY Saks Incorporated New York, NY Wegmans Food Markets, Inc. Rochester, NY Ben's Restaurant Group, Inc. New York, NY Katwalk Bar & Lounge New York, NY The Melting Pot in White Plains White Plains, NY The Reid Group Lockport, NY Nice N Easy Grocery Shoppes, Inc. Canastota, NY

61

Olean Wholesale Grocery Coop Olean, NY Main Care Energy Albany, NY Clarks Petroleum Service, Inc. Canastota, NY Petr-All Petroleum Consulting Corp. Dewitt, NY NOCO Energy Corp. Tonawanda, NY College Stores Association of New York State Oswego, NY Empire State Restaurant & Tavern Association Albany, NY Empire State Petroleum Association, Inc. (NY)

Food Industry Alliance of New York State Metropolitan Package Store Association of New York Albany, NY New York State Liquor Store Association Albany, NY New York State Restaurant Association Retail Council of New York State North Carolina Alex Lee, Inc. Hickory, NC Brintle Enterprises Mount Airy, North Carolina Food Masters, Inc. Raleigh, North Carolina Catawba Oil Company, Inc. Monroe, NC

62

Food Lion Salisbury, NC Harris Teeter, Inc. Matthews, NC Ingles Markets, Inc. Black Mountain, NC Ed Larkin’s on the Lake Lake Lure, NC Edwards of Ocraco*ke Ocraco*ke, NC CMI Solutions, Inc. Charlotte, NC Holmes Oil Company, Inc. Chapel Hill, NC

Sampson-Bladen Oil Company Raleigh, NC Campbell Oil Co Elizabethtown, NC Berico Fuels Greensboro, NC Yam City Oil Co. Tabor City, NC South Central Oil Co. Albermarle, NC Arey Oil Co. Shelby, NC Vernon Poole & Co. Asheboro, NC Abercrombie Oil Co. Greensboro, NC Short Stop Stores Fayetteville, NC

63

Huffman Oil Co. Burlington, NC One Stop Food Stores Shelby, NC Lowe’s Companies, Inc. Mooresville, NC Rex Oil Co. Thomasvile, NC Holmes Oil Co. Chapel Hill, NC Duncan Oil Co. Murphy, NC Raymer Oil Co. Statesville, NC Eastern Petroleum Enfield, NC Pugh Oil Co. Asheboro, NC New Dixie Oil Co. Roanoke Rapids, NC Erwin Oil Co. Durham, NC Cooper Petroleum Co. Laurinburg, NC EJ Pope & Son Mount Olive, NC Go Gas Corporation Wilmington, NC Beroth Oil Winston Salem, NC Henderson Oil Co. Hendersonville, NC KE Austin Corp Wilmington, NC

64

Mark Oil Co. Charlotte, NC JT Alexander & Son Mooresville, NC Jernigan Oil Co. Ahoskie, NC Rand Wade Oil Co. Snow Hill, NC Reaban Oil Co. Hendersonville, NC Planter's Oil Co. Pinehurst, NC Mid-State Petroleum High Point, NC KB Johnson Oil & Gas Co. Fuquay-Varina, NC United Oil of the Carolinas Gastonia, NC Horn Oil Co. Mocksville, NC Allen Industries, Inc Greensboro, NC Cary Oil Co. Cary, NC Eagle Transport Corporation Rocky Mount, NC McGee Corporation Matthews, NC Mike Long & Associates, Inc Concord, NC Petroleum Transport Company, Inc Pilot Mountain, NC R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. Winston Salem, NC

65

LG Jordan Oil Co. Apex, NC Carolinas Food Industry Council Raleigh, NC GOGAS Corporation Wilmington, NC North Carolina Retail Merchants Association North Carolina Restaurant & Lodging Association North Carolina Petroleum & Convenience Marketers United Oil of the Carolinas, Inc. Gastonia, NC North Dakota Bjornson Oil Co., Inc. Cavalier, ND North Dakota Retail Association

North Dakota Petroleum Marketers Association Ohio Speedway LLC Enon, OH Youngstown Crab Co. Restaurant and Bar Youngstown, OH STK Industries Inc., dba Bagel Stop; dba Straus Cincinnati, OH RZ Restaurant Group Columbus, OH John Q's Steakhouse Cleveland, OH OWC Restaurants, Inc. West Chester, OH Meadowlark Restaurant Dayton, OH

66

Chief Supermarket, Inc. Defiance, OH Dorothy Lane Market, Inc. Dayton, OH Fresh Encounter, Inc. Findlay, OH Heinen's Fine Foods, Inc. Cleveland, OH The Kroger Co. Cincinnati, OH Riesbeck Food Markets, Inc St. Clairsville, OH Macy’s, Inc. Cincinnati, OH White Castle Systems, Inc St. Columbus, OH Englefield Oil Company Heath, OH Lykins Oil Company Milford, OH The Andersons, Inc Maumee, OH Hightowers Petroleum Co. Franklin, Ohio EZ Energy Seven Hills, OH Lykins Oil Company Milford, OH Jo-Ann Stores, Inc. Hudson, Ohio Ohio Council of Retail Merchants & Affiliates Ohio Grocers Association Ohio Association of College Stores

67

Ohio Restaurant Association Ohio Petroleum Marketers & Convenience Store Association Oklahoma Danielson Oil Company Ada, OK Southwest College Bookstore Association Oklahoma Restaurant Association Oklahoma Petroleum Marketers & Convenience Store Association Oregon Space Age Fuel, Inc. Clackamas, OR Rudy's Markets, Inc. Bend, OR Leathers Enterprises Gresham, OR Elgin Foodtown Elgin, OR Halfway Mercantile Halfway, OR Har Mart Corp Aurora, OR Kennedy's Eastside Groc. Baker, OR Logan's Foodtown Vale, OR M & W Market #3 Nyssa, OR Old Pine Market Halfway, OR Red Apple Store Ontario, OR

68

Richland Hitching Post Richland, OR Sell-Rite Store Haines, OR Union Shopping Center Union, OR Wilson Food Town Baker City, OR Oregon Petroleum Association Pennsylvania Sheetz, Inc. Altoona, PA Associated Wholesalers, Inc. Robesonia, PA Boscov’s Department Store, LLC Reading, PA Collins Family Markets Philadelphia, PA Ellwood City Save-A-Lot Ellwood City, PA East Brady Freshmarket Butler, PA Friedman's Freshmarkets Butler, PA Harold Friedman, Inc. Butler, PA Giant Eagle, Inc. Pittsburgh, PA Giant Food Stores Carlisle, PA Harrisburg Hotel Corp. Harrisburg, PA Rite Aid

69

Camp Hill, PA Weis Markets, Inc. Sunbury, PA Jacobs Petroleum Products, Inc. Waynesburg, PA Follett Corporation Easton, PA Penn Tank Lines Chester Springs, PA The Pep Boys - Manny, Moe & Jack Philadelphia, PA Pennsylvania Retailers' Association Pennsylvania Restaurant Association Pennsylvania Petroleum Marketers & Convenience Store Association Pennsylvania Convenience Store Council and Pennsylvania Food Merchants Association Rhode Island Ocean State Harley-Davidson, Inc. Warwick, RI Colbea/East Side Enterprises, LLC Cranston, RI CVS Caremark Woonsocket, RI Rue Bis Providence, RI Jacky's Galaxie & Sushi Bar Bristol, RI Pinewood Pub & Pizza Chepachet, RI Ocean State Jobbers N. Kingston, RI Rhode Island Food Dealers Association

70

South Carolina W. Lee Flowers & Co., Inc. Lake City, SC Holy City Hospitality Charleston, SC Echols Oil Company Incorporated Greenville, SC Mixson Oil Company Allendale, SC Sumpert Oil Co. Pelion, SC Lowry Oil Co. Seneca, SC Curtis Oil Co. Chesterfield, SC Lindsay Oil Co. Pickens, SC H&S Oil Co. Andrews, SC Chase Oil. Co. Florence, SC RL Jordan Oil Co. Spartanburg, SC Kunkle Oil Co. Newberry, SC Calhoun Oil Co. St. Matthews, SC Brabham Oil Co. Bamberg, SC

Blythewood Oil Co. Ridgeway, SC Winnsboro Petroleum

71

Carlisle, SC

Stockman Oil Co. Greenwood, SC The Spinx Co. Greenville, SC Ice Machines International, Inc Myrtle Beach, SC Oilmen's Truck Tanks, Inc Spartanburg, SC Brabham Oil Co., Inc. Bamberg, S.C. South Carolina Retail Association South Carolina Petroleum Marketers Association South Dakota Cattleman's Club Steakhouse Pierre, SD Burke Oil Company Chamberlain, SD Badger Oil Company Badger, SD Stern Oil Company Freeman, SD Midwest Oil Company Hill City, SD Severson Oil and LP Company Souix Falls, SD Moyle Petroleum Company Rapid City, SD Halvorson Oil Company Kennebec, SD Licensed Beverage Dealers of South Dakota Pierre, SD

72

Nelson Oil & LP Gas Inc. Hill City, SD South Dakota Petroleum and Propane Marketers Association South Dakota Retailers Association Tennessee Dyer Foods, Inc. Dyer, TN E.W. James & Sons, Inc. Union City, TN Foodline Service Memphis, TN Rocky Top Markets LLC Kingston, TN Spankiesm Cookeville TN Demos' Restaurants Murfreesboro TN Regal Entertainment Group Knoxville, TN Eco Travel Plaza Crossville, TN AutoZone Memphis, TN Knoxville West TA TravelCenter Knoxville, TN Cox Oil Company Union City, TN Beall Corporation Ooltewah, TN H.T. Hackney Company Knoxville, TN

73

Titan Management Group Brentwood, TN Dollar General Corporation Goodlettsville, Tennessee Tennessee Fuel & Convenience Store Association Tennessee Retail Association Tennessee Grocers & Convenience Store Association Texas Cinemark USA, Inc. Plano, TX E-Z Mart Stores, Inc. Texarkana, TX Valero Energy Corporation San Antonio, TX W&J Investments, Inc. The Woodlands, TX 7-Eleven, Inc. Dallas, TX Affiliated Foods, Inc. Amarillo, TX Brookshire Grocery Company Tyler, TX BRENCO Marketing Corp. Bryan, TX Fiesta Mart, Inc. Houston, TX Lawrence Brothers Sweetwater TX Fred Garrison Company Plainview, TX Gerland Corporation Houston, TX Jones-Blair Paint Company

74

Dallas, TX Minyard Food Stores, Inc. Dallas, TX Pay and Save, Inc. Littlefield, TX Phase Next Hospitality Dallas, TX Rehkopf Enterprises, Inc. Wake Village, TX Varsity Bookstore Lubbock, TX Rip Griffin Travel Centers Lubbock, TX Murphy Adams Restaurant Group, Inc., Mama Fu’s Asian House Austin, TX Hill Country Dairies, Inc. Austin TX Endeavour Enterprises Lubbock, TX Taco Villa Lubbock, TX Taco Villa Levelland, TX Pizza Hut Plainview, TX Pizza Hut Levelland, TX Pizza Hut Slaton, TX Pizza Hut Muleshoe, TX Pizza Hut Littlefield, TX Polk Oil Company

75

Lufkin, TX CITGO Petroleum Corporation Houston, TX Fidelity Express Sulphur Springs, TX LPT Retail Management Services Temple, TX Tanknology Austin, TX The Jack Olsta Co. Huntsville, TX Vitol, Inc Houston, TX J.C. Penney Corporation, Inc. Plano, Texas Texas Petroleum Marketers and Convenience Store Association Texas Retailers Association Texas Package Stores Association Texas Grocery and Convenience Association Texas Restaurant Association Utah 1-800 CONTACTS, Inc. Draper, Utah Maverik, Inc. North Salt Lake, UT Associated Food Stores, Inc. Salt Lake City, UT Harmon City, Inc. West Valley City, UT Log Haven Restaurant Group Salt Lake City, UT

76

Restaurant & Store Equipment Co. Salt Lake City, UT Randall Distributing Layton, UT Billings Distributing Company Inc. Mapleton, UT Wind River Petroleum Salt Lake City, UT Hone Oil Company Ogden, UT Bell Brothers Oil Company Coalville, UT Kellerstass Enterprises Ogden, UT P.E.R.S. Ogden, UT Allen's Super Save #1 Provo, UT Allen's Super Save #2 Orem, UT Allen's Super Save #4 Springville, UT Al's Foodtown duch*esne, UT Barrett's Market Salina, UT Blue Mountain Foods Monticello, UT Blue Mountain Meats Monticello, UT Bowman's Kaysville, UT Broadway Shop Ctr. & Phar. Salt Lake City, UT

77

Buy Low Market Provo, UT Canyon Country Blanding, UT Carter's Market Enterprise, UT Chuck Wagon General Store Torrey, UT Clarke's Country Market Tropic, UT Clark's Market (Blanding) Blanding, UT Country Corner Cleveland, UT Creamery At Helaman Provo, UT Creamery On Ninth Provo, UT Crisp Grocery Monroe, UT Crisp Grocery Salem, UT Davis Jubilee Food & Drug #1 Vernal, UT Davis Jubilee Food & Drug #2 Roosevelt, UT Davis Jubilee Food & Drug #3 West Valley City, UT Days Market Provo, UT Days Market Heber City, UT Delta Jubilee Foods Delta, UT

78

Duane's Foodtown Fillmore, UT El Mexicano Market Orem, UT El Rodeo Market Ogden, UT Family Fresh Foods Washington Terrace, UT Farmers Market Laverkin, UT Flaming Gorge Market & Merc Manila, UT Food Ranch Bestway Orangevlle, UT Food World Thriftway Salt Lake City, UT Glaziers Foodtown Kanab, UT Goulding's Grocery Monument Vy, UT Griffin Merc. Escalante, UT Griffith Foodtown Coalville, UT Gunnison Thriftway Gunnison, UT Harmons 7th Street Grocery Midvale, UT Harmons At Roy Roy, UT Harmons At Taylorsville Salt Lake City, UT Harmons At The Brickyard Salt Lake City, UT

79

Harmons At The District South Jordan, UT Harmons At The Orchards Orem, UT Harmons Bangerter Crossing Draper, UT Harmons Cougar Place Kearns, UT Harmons Draper Draper, UT Harmons Ogden Five Points Ogden, UT Harmons South Jordan South Jordan, UT Harmons St. George St. George, UT Harmons West West Valley City, UT Hometown Market Huntington, UT Honey's Marketplace Kanab, UT Island Market Logan, UT Joe's Main Street Market Panguitch, UT John's Marketplace Taylorsville, UT Kamas Foodtown Kamas, UT Ken's Kash Store Oakley, UT Kent's Foods Roy, UT

80

Kent's Market Place Tremonton, UT Kent's Market Place Brigham City, UT Kent's Market Place Ephraim, UT Kohler's Lehi, UT Kohler's Food Stores Highland, UT La Herradura De Oro West Valley West Valley City, UT La Sal Store La Sal, UT La Vaquita Market Salt Lake City, UT Lakeview Market Garden City, UT Leed's Market Leeds, UT Lee's Market Place Smithfield, UT Lee's Market Place Logan, UT Lee's Market Place No. Ogden, UT M & D Foodtown Parowan, UT Main Street Market Ferron, UT Manti Market Manti, UT Medsource Direct Sandy, UT

81

Melon Vine Green River, UT Mike's Foodtown Beaver, UT Miner's Trading Post Sunnyside, UT Miniature Market Salt Lake City, UT Morgan Jubilee Morgan, UT Moroni Bestway Moroni, UT Mt. Nebo Thriftway Nephi, UT Neighbor's Market North Salt Lake, UT Payson Market Payson, UT Peterson Foodtown Riverton, UT Pioneer Market Fillmore, UT Quality Thriftway - Delta Delta, UT R & A Market Helper, UT Rancho Market Salt Lake City, UT Rancho Market #1 Salt Lake City, UT Rancho Market #3 Kearns, UT Rancho Market #4 Provo, UT

82

Rancho Market #5 Magna, UT Reams #10 W. Jordan, UT Reams #12 Salt Lake City, UT Reams #4 Springville, UT Reams #9 Sandy, UT Reams #11 W Jordan, UT Reams #14 Layton, UT Reams #15 Sandy, UT Reams #2 Salt Lake City, UT Reams #6 Kearns, UT Reams #8 Magna, UT Red Mountain Market Ivins, UT Ridley's (Hyrum) Hyrum, UT Ridley's (Orem) Orem, UT Ridley's (Orem) Orem, UT Ridley's (Tremonton) Tremonton, UT Royal's Loa, UT

83

Ruby's Inn General Store Bryce, UT Soelbergs' Grantsvlle, UT Sol Foods Springdale, UT Sol Foods Springdale, UT South End Market Provo, UT Standard Market Magna, UT Stan's Market Kearns, UT Stan's Merc. Circlevlle, UT Stewart's Roosevelt, UT Stewart's Thriftway Castledale, UT Stop & Shop Market Ogden, UT Store At Midway, The Midway, UT Store Too, The Holladay, UT Store, The Salt Lake City, UT Summit Furn. & Mercantile Co Coalville, UT Sunshine Market Milford, UT Swasey Foodtown Altamont, UT

84

Tenochtitlan Super Market Midvale, UT Terrel's Thriftway Mt Pleasant, UT Terry's Food & Drug Orderville, UT The Market At Park City Park City, UT Theurer's Store Lewiston, UT Todd's Market Minersvlle, UT Ute Indian Tribe Ft duch*esne, UT Valley Market Eden, UT Village Market Moab Moab, UT Wangsgards Ogden, UT Winegar's Supermarket Inc Roy, UT Winegar's Supermarket Inc #2 Bountiful, UT Winegar's Supermarket Inc #3 Clearfield, UT Workmen's Market Helper, UT Western Petroleum Marketers Association Salt Lake City, UT Utah Food Industry Association Utah Retail Merchants Association Utah Restaurant Association

85

Utah Petroleum Marketers and Retailers Association Vermont Stowe’s Pie in the Sky Stowe, VT Cota and Cota, Inc. Bellow Falls, VT Fleming Oil Company Brattleboro, VT Vermont Grocers' Association Vermont Retail Association Vermont Fuel Dealers Association Virginia Miller Oil Co., Inc. Miller Mart Norfolk, VA Tiger Fuel Co. Charlottesville, VA Frank's Trucking Center Chesapeake, Virginia M.L. Davis Oil Company, Inc. Dba Davis Travel Centers/Circle D Marts Stony Creek, VA Simmons Travel Center Bracey, VA Enovo Restaurants Arlington, VA H. N. Funkhouser & Co. Winchester, VA K-VA-T Food Stores, Inc./Food City Abingdon, VA Southside Oil, LLC Richmond, VA

86

Uppy's Convenience Stores Richmond, VA Emmart Oil Company Winchester, VA Capitol Petroleum Group, LLC Springfield, VA Davenport Energy Inc Chatham, VA Woodfin Oil Co. Mechanicsville, VA Morgan Oil Corp. Marshall, VA Parker Oil Co. South Hill, VA EM Gray & Son, Inc Milford, VA Delta Oil Co. Petersberg, VA Petroleum Marketers Inc Roanoke, VA Quarles Petroleum Inc Fredicksburg, VA PAPCO Inc Virginia Beach, VA Fannon Petroleum Services Gainsville, VA Milo C. co*ckerham Galax, VA Central Oil of Virginia Rocky Mount, VA Workman Oil C. Forest, VA Amthor International Gretna, VA

87

ExxonMobil Fuels Marketing Co Arlington, VA PetroProperties & Finance, LLC Vienna, VA Advance Auto Parts, Inc. Roanoke, VA PAPCO, INC. Virginia Beach, VA Quarles Petroleum, Inc. Fredericksburg, VA Virginia College Stores Association Blacksburg, VA Mid-Atlantic Convenience Stores Richmond, VA Virginia Licensed Beverage Association Virginia Beach, VA Virginia Petroleum, Convenience and Grocery Association Washington Gee Cee’s Inc. Toledo, Washington Bert's Red Apple Market, Inc. Seattle, WA Haggen, Inc. Bellingham, WA Magnolia Audio Video Kent, WA URM Stores, Inc. Spokane, WA Lombardi's, Neighborhood Italian Restaurants Arby's Restaurants of Spokane Spokane, WA Margent Corporation, Dba: Dairy Queen

88

Olympia, WA

Rib City Grill Vancouver, WA Beacon Rock Golf Course North Bonneville, WA Green Mountain Golf Course Vancouver, WA Caffe Appassionato Coffee Company Seattle, WA Waterloo Restaurant Ventures Inc. (D/b/a Romano’s Macaroni Grill) Vancouver, WA Inland Oil Company Soap Lake, WA Sun Pacific Energy Kennewick, WA Albina Fuel Vancouver, WA Connell Oil, Inc Pasco, WA Skylark's Hidden Cafe Bellingham, WA Amazon.com Seattle, WA Washington Restaurant Association Washington Retail Association Washington Oil Marketers Association/Pacific Northwest Oil Heat Council West Virginia R.M. Roach & Sons, Inc. Martinsburg, WV Go-Mart, Gassaway, WV West Virginia Oil Marketers and Grocers Association

89

West Virginia Retailers Association Charleston, WV Wisconsin Marcus Theatres Corp. Milwaukee, WI ShopKo Stores Operating Co. Green Bay, WI Kwik Trip, Inc. La Crosse, WI Festival Foods Onalaska, WI Roundy's Supermarkets, Inc. Milwaukee, WI The Nitty Gritty in Madison and Middleton Madison and Middleton, WI Kavanaugh Restaurant Supply Inc, Madison, WI Ardy & Ed's Drive In, Inc., Oshkosh, WI HuHot Mongolian Grill Madison, WI HuHot Mongolian Grill Appelton, WI HuHot Mongolian Grill Green Bay, WI HuHot Mongolian Grill Kenosha, WI HuHot Mongolian Grill Eau Claire, WI Open Pantry Food Marts of Wisconsin Pleasant Prairie, WI Franklin Fueling Systems Madison, WI

90

Midwest Fuels La Crosse, WI Garrow Oil & Propane Corporation Appleton, WI Stop-N-Go of Madison Madison, WI Open Pantry Food Marts of Wisconsin Pleasant Prairie, WI Cole Oil & Propane Company, Inc. Lomira, WI Central Wisconsin Cooperative Stratford, WI Frawley Oil Company, Inc. Whitewater, WI East Troy Point Shell, LLC East Troy, WI Prairie State Energy, LLC Lake Geneva, WI Riiser Energy Wausau, WI Lang Oil, Inc. Oshkosh, WI Kwik Trip, Inc. La Crosse, WI Mian's Oil Company Franklin, WI O'Connor Petroleum Company, Inc. Hales Corners, WI Condon Oil Company Ripon, WI Fuel Service DJ Marts, LLC Chippewa Falls, WI Lakeside Oil Company, Inc. Fox Point, WI

91

Pine River Mini Marts, Inc. Manitowoc, WI Van Zeeland Oil Company, Inc. Appleton, WI Wild Goose Station Slinger, WI Baltus Oil Company, Inc. Marshfield, WI Crawford Oil Company, Inc. Portage, WI Goetz Companies, Inc. Portage, WI Meffert Oil Company, Inc. Waunakee, WI Team Schierl, Inc. Stevens Point, WI U.S. Venture Appleton, WI Jerry Willkomm, Inc. & JC Stores, Inc. Somers, WI Erickson Oil Products, Inc. Hudson, WI U.S. Venture, Inc. Appleton, WI Alliance of Wisconsin Retailers Wisconsin Grocers Association Wisconsin Restaurant Association Wisconsin Petroleum Marketers & Convenience Store Association Wyoming Bailey Oil Company Riverton, WY Perkins Oil Company Rawlins, WY

92

Alpine Market Alpine, WY Benedict Trading Company Mtn. View, WY Burney & Company Big Piney, WY Colter Bay Vill. Gen. Store Moran, WY Evanston Jubilee Evanston, WY Familee Thriftway Afton, WY Hoback Store Jackson, WY Hungry Jack's General Store Wilson, WY Jackson Whole Grocer Jackson, WY Kemmerer Jubilee Kemmerer, WY Moose Trading Post Moose, WY Obo's Market & Deli Pinedale, WY Obo's Market & Deli-Marbleton Marbleton, WY Old Tulsa General Store Labarge, WY Ridley's (Pinedale) Pinedale, WY Stage Stop General Store Baggs, WY Valley Market Thayne, WY

93

Westside Store & Imo's Deli Wilson, WY Basketeria Pavillion, WY Big Horn Foodtown (Red Apple ) Lovell, WY Blairs Market Thermopolis, WY Blair's Market - Worland Worland, WY Blair's Thriftway Powell, WY D.J.'S Buffalo, WY Edgerton Grocery Edgerton, WY Ethete Store Ethete, WY Hines General Store Ft Washakie, WY Mr. D's Lander, WY Ron's Food Farm Greybull, WY Warehouse Market Sheridan, WY Wyoming State Liquor Association Cheyenne, WY Wyoming Petroleum Marketers and Convenience Store Association Wyoming Retail Association National Trade Associations Automotive Aftermarket Industry Association

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[PDF] February 2, Dear Chairman Bernanke: - Free Download PDF (2024)

FAQs

What principles do economists employ to reckon a type of resource? ›

The 5 basic economic principles include scarcity, supply and demand, marginal costs, marginal benefits, and incentives. Scarcity states that resources are limited, and the allocation of resources is based on supply and demand. Consumers consider marginal costs, benefits, and incentives when purchasing decisions.

What are the principles of economic notes? ›

What are the main Principles of Economics? Some principles of economics are scarcity, resource allocation, cost-benefit analysis, marginal analysis, and consumer choice.

What is the logic of monetary policy? ›

Monetary policy is enacted by a central bank to sustain a level economy and keep unemployment low, protect the value of the currency, and maintain economic growth. By manipulating interest rates or reserve requirements, or through open market operations, a central bank affects borrowing, spending, and savings rates.

What are the three basic economic questions? ›

Economists address these three questions: (1) What goods and services should be produced to meet consumer needs? (2) How should they be produced, and who should produce them? (3) Who should receive goods and services? The answers to these questions depend on a country's economic system.

What are the 4 key economic resources? ›

Economic resources can be divided into four categories: labour, land or natural resources, capital, and entrepreneurship (entrepreneurial ability).

What are the 4 elements of economics? ›

Elements of Economics. The basic elements of economics include the concepts of scarcity, supply and demand, costs and benefits, and incentives. These basic concepts are centered around universal human nature and the fundamental economic problem.

What are the 7 guiding principles economics? ›

He distills seven basic economic principles and illustrates how they manifest in real-world economies. Keep reading to learn about Tim Harford's economic principles: scarcity, price targeting, externalities, missing information, the stock market, game theory, and globalization.

What are the 7 fundamentals of economics? ›

There are Seven Core Principles of Economics. These principles are: Scarcity Principle, Cost-Benefit Principle, Principle of Unequal Costs, Principle of Comparative Advantage, Principle of Increasing Opportunity Cost, Equilibrium Principle, and …show more content…

What is the tight money policy? ›

Tight monetary policy aims to slow down an overheated economy by increasing interest rates. Conversely, loose monetary policy aims to stimulate an economy by lowering interest rates.

What is the Phillips curve in economics? ›

What Is the Phillips Curve? The Phillips curve is an economic theory that inflation and unemployment have a stable and inverse relationship. Developed by William Phillips, it claims that with economic growth comes inflation, which in turn should lead to more jobs and less unemployment.

What are the three tools for controlling the money supply? ›

The Fed uses three primary tools in managing the money supply and pursuing stable economic growth: reserve requirements, the discount rate, and open market operations.

What is economics in one words? ›

Economics can be defined in a few different ways. It's the study of scarcity, the study of how people use resources and respond to incentives, or the study of decision-making.

What is the best book to learn economics? ›

Must Read Books for Aspiring Economists
  • Freakonomics, Steven D. Levitt and Stephen J. ...
  • The Armchair Economist: Economics and Everyday Life, Steven E. Landsburg. ...
  • Naked Economics: Undressing the Dismal Science, Charles Wheelan. ...
  • Misbehaving: The Making of Behavioral Economics, Richard H.

What is economics in easy words? ›

Economics is the study of how people allocate scarce resources for production, distribution, and consumption, both individually and collectively.

What do economists consider to be a resource? ›

In economics, it is most common to divide productive resources into three simple categories–land, labor, and capital–which are sometimes called the basic factors of production. Human capital–that is, knowledge and skills–is an important clarification of the simply ideas of raw labor or raw capital.

What are the 4 principles of economics? ›

Four key economic concepts—scarcity, supply and demand, costs and benefits, and incentives—can help explain many decisions that humans make.

What are 3 types of resources in economics? ›

Every society is endowed with resources which are used to produce the goods and services that enable it to survive and prosper. These resources, called productive resources, can be classified into three groups: natural resources, human resources, and capital resources.

How do economists define resources? ›

In economics, resource is defined as a service or other asset used to produce goods and services that meet human needs and wants. Also referred to as factors of production, economics classifies resources into four categories — land, labour, capital and enterprise.

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